Thursday, July 25, 2024, 1:37 AM
Site: University
Course: University ( University)
Glossary: Defining Religion


an invitation from God through a group of Christians to carry out in their name and on their behalf a portion of the work God has given the church to do.


an adjective describing one who has received an invitation from God through a group of Christians to carry out in their name and on their behalf a portion of the work God has given the church to do.

Called Worker

an individual who has received and accepted an invitation from God through a group of Christians to carry out in their name and on their behalf a portion of the work God has given the church to do.


the developed teachings or theological system of the reformer John Calvin (1509-1564) as presented in the various Reformed confessions of the 16th and 17th centuries and briefly summarized with the acrostic T.U.L.I.P ? Total depravity, Unconditional election, Limited atonement, Irresistible grace, Perseverance of the saints.


the area around the altar in a church building from which the presiding minister leads the worship service. The chancel is also called the sanctuary or apse.

Charismatic Movement

a movement arising in the mid 20th century that emphasizes the experience of the so-called Baptism in the Holy Spirit and consequent charismatic gifts like speaking in tongues, faith-healing, and prophesying. This movement is separate from Pentecostalism in that it has arisen in the form of small groups within non-pentecostal churches. (see Pentecostalism)


the imposition of pain or penalty for the purpose of improving or correcting. The pain and problems that Christians suffer in this life serve as chastisement from God. They remind us of our sins and frailties, and our dependence on God for everything.

Clarity of Scripture

the truth that the teachings of Scripture are accessible to every reader or hearer of average intelligence. Although there are some things in the Bible that are difficult to understand (2 Peter 3:16), the basic message of Scripture is clear enough to make the simple wise (Psalm 19:7) and to enlighten our sinful minds (2 Peter 1:19).

Close or closed communion

the scriptural practice of inviting to partake of the Lords’ Supper with only  those who are communicant members of churches that are one with us in all that we teach and believe (1 Corinthians 10:17, Romans 16:17, 2 John 10-11, 1 Corinthians 11:27-29).


a formal prayer used in a worship service. The collect follows this pattern: (1) the addressing of God, (2) an attribute of God or the basis for approaching God, (3) the petition or request, (4) the reason for the petition, (5) the doxology or expression of praise to God.


the act of acknowledging one's sins. Formal confession in the Lutheran church embraces two parts: (1) acknowledging one's sins and (2) receiving absolution or forgiveness. A confession can also be a statement of what one believes, e.g. the Augsburg Confession


a gathering of individuals around the means of grace, usually in a specific geographic location.


to set apart for God?s service or special use in the church.


an ecclesiastical rite in which a person, place or thing is set apart or dedicated to the service of God; e.g., the time in the communion service when the bread and wine are dedicated for their use in the Lord?s Supper through the words of Christ used on the night he instituted the sacrament.


is the false view either that the body and blood, bread and wine come together to form one substance in the Lord?s Supper or that the body and blood are present in a natural manner like the bread and the wine. Lutherans believe that the bread and the wine are present in a natural manner in the Lord?s Supper and Christ?s true body and blood are present in an illocal, supernatural manner.


the bestowal of faith; the act of God by which he turns people from sin and unbelief to faith in Christ. The Holy Spirit works through the gospel in God's Word and the sacraments to convert sinners and preserve them in faith.


agreement, contract, testament. Scripture speaks of God's covenant with Noah (Genesis 6:18-21), Abraham (Genesis 15:18-21), Israel at Sinai (Exodus 24:7-8), and David (2 Samuel 7). Through the work of the Messiah, God established a new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31-34, 1 Corinthians 11:25) in which he promises the forgiveness of sins.


a written statement or confession of what one believes. The three creeds commonly used in worship-the Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian Creeds-are brief summaries of the basic teachings of Scripture.